Zonja Capalini

Installing OpenSim in Windows XP with MySQL.

Update 20090201: Included instructions for Windows 64 bit as reported by Xen Zerbino (Thanks! :-)).

Update 20090123:Fixed a bug in OpenSim.ini detected by Alpha Runningbear. (Thanks!)

Update 20090105: Reworded step 6 to eliminate some tech-talk, added a fall-back for initial log-in, and describe the shutdown procedure in as per Vint Falken‘s suggestions 1 and 2 (thanks! :-)).

Note 1: OpenSim is considered to be alpha software. This means that many things you expect from your daily use of Second Life don’t work in the same way, or simply they don’t work at all. Development of OpenSim is very active, tho, so that we can only expect OpenSim quality and features to better with time.

Note 2: This is not for the faint of heart. :-) You’ve been warned! :-)

Note 3: All the information presented here was valid on January the 3rd, 2009. I’ll correct errors that are brought to my attention, but this post should not be taken as a substitute of the official OpenSim wiki.

The purpose of this post is to present a short, comprehensive, do-it-yourself tutorial for the installation of OpenSim in a Windows XP machine, using MySQL as a back-end for persistence. I’ve tried to write the tutorial in such a way that you can understand it even if you’ve got no previous exposure to OpenSim or to database concepts; however, some familiarity with the operating system is required, in particular you’re assumed to know how to 1) open a system prompt; 2) open a text editor and create a file (the “notepad” application will suffice). A step-by-step procedure follows; you’ll be asked to download some files; these files implement OpenSim and MySql.

Step 1: Download OpenSim here and install it, using all default options.

OpenSim (http://opensimulator.org/wiki/Main_Page) is the Open Source Simulator, the set of programs that will allow you to create Second Life-like islands in your own computer, and eventually link them to the world for other people to see.

Step 2: Download MySQL 5.1 (for Win32 or for Win64; the Windows ZIP/Setup.EXE option worked for me). Install with all default options. You will be asked for the “root” password, chose it carefully, you’ll need it below [use that path if you’ve neved worked with a RDBMS, or don’t even know what a RDBMS is; otherwise, you should define a special user for OpenSim-related questions].

Step 3: You’ll need the MySQL GUI tools too:  http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/gui-tools/5.0.html. Again, install with all default options.

MySQL is the program that will implement persistence in your islands.  “Persistence” is the technical term used to describe the fact that your appearance is the same (it persists) between logins, the islands are the same too (they also persist) between logins (assuming there’s not been somebody to alter them, of course, or a script has altered the world, etc).

To implement persistence, we will need to create a MySQL database. You must chose a name for your database. “OpenSim” is a good choice; or you can think big, and use the name of your own future grid :-)

Step 4: Go to Start -> All programs -> MySQL -> MySQL Server 5.1 -> MySQL Command Line Client and type the root password (alternatively, open a system prompt and connect to MySQL using the OpenSim-specific account). When you get the “mysql>” prompt, type

  create database MyGridName;

substitute “MyGridName” by the name you’ve chosen; the final semicolon is necessary; you should get a “Query Ok, 1 row affected” reply.

[If you’ve created an OpenSim-specific account, grant this account all privileges on the database you’ve just created]

Step 5: Go to “C:\Program Files\OpenSim”, and create a file called “OpenSim.ini”. Cut and paste the text below into it, reconstructing the “broken” lines (if a line begins with a blank, eliminate the first three blanks only and join it with the previous line).

-------------------- Cut here -------------------
region_info_source = filesystem
gridmode = False
physics = OpenDynamicsEngine
meshing = ZeroMesher
physical_prim = True
see_into_this_sim_from_neighbor = True
serverside_object_permissions = False
storage_plugin = "OpenSim.Data.MySQL.dll"
storage_connection_string = "Data Source=localhost;
   Database=DDDD;User ID=UUUU;Password=PPPP;";
storage_prim_inventories = true
appearance_persist = true
appearance_connection_string = "Data Source=localhost;
   Database=DDDD;User ID=UUUU;Password=PPPP;pooling=false;"
asset_database = "local"
startup_console_commands_file = "startup_commands.txt"
shutdown_console_commands_file = "shutdown_commands.txt"
DefaultScriptEngine = ScriptEngine.DotNetEngine
asset_database = local
clientstack_plugin = OpenSim.Region.ClientStack.LindenUDP.dll
EventQueue = True
accounts_authenticate = True
welcome_message = Welcome to Condensation!
inventory_plugin = "OpenSim.Data.MySQL.dll"
inventory_source = "Data Source=localhost;Database=DDDD;
   User ID=UUUU;Password=PPPP;"
userDatabase_plugin = "OpenSim.Data.MySQL.dll"
user_source = "Data Source=localhost;Database=DDDD;
   User ID=UUUU;Password=PPPP;"
asset_plugin = "OpenSim.Data.MySQL.dll"
asset_source = "Data Source=localhost;Database=DDDD;
   User ID=UUUU;Password=PPPP;"
dump_assets_to_file = False
default_location_x = 1000
default_location_y = 1000
http_listener_port = 9000
remoting_listener_port = 8895
grid_server_url = http://localhost:8001
grid_send_key = null
grid_recv_key = null
user_server_url = http://localhost:8002
user_send_key = null
user_recv_key = null
asset_server_url = http://localhost:8003
inventory_server_url = http://localhost:8004
secure_inventory_server = true
-------------------- Cut here -------------------

Now replace all occurences of “DDDD” by the name of the database you created in step 4, all occurences of “UUUU” by “root” (or the name of the OpenSim-specific account you created in step 3), and all occurences of PPPP by root’s password (or the password for the OpenSim-specific account). You should also replace “Welcome to Condensation!” by your own welcome message.

Step 6: Go to Start > Run. Type “cmd” and press ENTER. Type “cd \program files\opensim” and press ENTER. Type “opensim” and press ENTER [if you’re running Windows Vista 64 bit, type opensim32bitLaunch instead — you’ll need to run it as an administrator]. Wait some secs. When asked for “default region config: region name”, enter the name of your first region (I entered “Condensation Land”); you can accept the default for Grid Location (X Axis) and (Y Axis), for the internal IP address  or incoming UDP,  and for the internal IP port for incoming UDP; you will then be asked for the first and last names and password for the master avatar: you can use your SL first and last names, but I’d suggest you’d not use your SL password, as this password will be stored as plain text.

We’re almost done!

Step 7: Create a copy of the Second Life icon in your desktop, change its name to whatever you fancy (in my case I chosed “Condensation”), right click the new icon and select “Properties”, and add “-loginuri http://localhost:9000/” (without the quotes) to the end of the first entry field.

0451 - Creating our own icon for our private grid

That’s it.

Now open your newly created icon. You’ll see data about Second Life, which you can disregard, and you’ll know that you’re not in Second Life any more because of the red menu bar. Enter the first name, last name and password you have created in step 6, and press ENTER. [If for any reason you get a “Could not authenticate your avatar” message, you can always re-create your avatar by typing “create user first last password 1000 1000” (without the quotes) and pressing enter at the “Region <root> # :” prompt in the OpenSim window.]

0452 - The log in screen

You’ll log in as usual… into your own grid!!! If you’re using the same first name and last name than in SL, you’ll see the last screen of your last SL session; don’t be confused by that: you’ll also see your own welcome message, which tells you that you’re not logging into SL after all.

0455 - Logging in yay!

Wait a few seconds, and… poof! You’re logged in into your own grid!

0454 - Here we are...

If you display the map, you’ll see that you’re in an universe with only one island, namely, the one you’ve named in step 6.

0453 - ...and here's our region!

Now, ok, you’re ruthed, which means that you’re horrible, and your world is empty, with no other avies, no economy and no shops. However, you can create prims,

0455 - Creating our first prim

upload textures, etc., and this is more than enough to give you a feeling of what the technology can do.

Final step: When you’re finished playing/experimenting/whatever, go to the opensim console and type “quit” (or “shutdown”) and press ENTER. This will guarantee that all the data (i.e., prims, outfits, terrain, etc) is correctly saved so that you’ll find it there next time you open your world.

Rationale for everything above:

January 3, 2009 - Posted by | OpenSim, SL Exodus, Tutorials | , , , ,


  1. Exactly, indeed what I posted today creates a 1-island grid, what the OpenSim people call “standalone mode” or “sandbox mode”. Creating a full grid is slightly more complicated, and will be the object of a subsequent blog post. Also, making your grid available to the outside world is no trivial task. Still, I feel strongly that’s the way to go.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 4, 2009

  2. Sorry if I seem dumb but if I read correctly this will create a personal grid resident on our machine?

    That’s awesome!!!!

    Comment by Gita Rau | January 4, 2009

  3. If I can get that through, ANYBODY will be able to as well. Thank you Zonja for all your efforts. I am still shy and scared of adding a new addiction to the one that bring me such RL trouble. But I feel I must honour your commitment.

    Not yet sure what is meant by “to create a personal grid resident” as Gita says. Sounds exciting though.

    Comment by Mikil Tiki | January 4, 2009

  4. Thanks, Mikil! :-) Re: Gita’s comment, there’s a parse error in your way of reading I think: that’s “to create (a personal grid) (resident on our [own] machine)”. To create a virtual world in your Windows PC.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 4, 2009

  5. Oh, thank you for your kind words! :-) More tutorials will follow soon.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 4, 2009

  6. Zonja!!!
    this is freakin’ GREAT!!! Let me tell you!
    I will post a link to this awesome tutorial on Plurk and Twitter…
    I’m so eager to learn more about these things and I am sure I couldn’t find a better teacher!!!
    It’s very well done & easy to follow.
    Thank you AGAIN!!!

    Comment by Eidur Kappler | January 4, 2009

  7. […] idea of “fair” Miss Zonja Capalini wrote out an easy-to-execute tutorial on Installing OpenSim on Windows XP with MySQL. This isn’t about how to login to an OpenSim, no, this is about running your very own […]

    Pingback by How to OpenSim DIY on Windows XP | VintFalken.com | January 4, 2009

  8. […] Zona Capalini: Installing OpenSim in Windows XP with MySQL – “The purpose of this post is to present a short, comprehensive, do-it-yourself tutorial for the installation of OpenSim in a Windows XP machine, using MySQL as a back-end for persistence. “ […]

    Pingback by Jeff Barr’s Blog » Links for Sunday, January 4, 2009 | January 5, 2009

  9. You’re very welcome, and thank you too for your comment. I enjoy writing tutorials! :-)

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 5, 2009

  10. Excellent post, Zonja. Thank you!

    Comment by Stefan Andersson | January 5, 2009

  11. Zonja, on 3rd thought, maybe change this

    “Open a system prompt, go to “C:\Program Files\OpenSim” ”


    Go to Start > Run. Type “cmd” and press ENTER. Type “cd c:\program files\opensim” and press ENTER. Type “opensim” and press ENTER.

    Not sure if everybody knows how to err.. mount? (especially not us that started out after Windows 95 :D

    Comment by Vint Falken | January 5, 2009

  12. You’re of course right. I’ve always thought that if I were a program and was called in the way you describe I’d underperform in silent protest, but of course those are techie prejudices :-)

    Incorporated and annotated. Thanks!

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 5, 2009

  13. Found that in the OpenSim wiki:

    Note: if you are using Windows Vista, remember to start servers as Admin. If not it will prompt you an error in console like “Error – Access denied”

    If you try it, please report back, and I’ll update the post! :-)

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 5, 2009

  14. I forgot to ask, do you think this will work on Vista?

    Comment by Gita Rau | January 5, 2009

  15. Gita, I believe if you have 32 bit vista, you’d be fine. some errors were reported with 64 bit vista:


    Comment by Vint Falken | January 5, 2009

  16. […] Zonja Capalini « Installing OpenSim in Windows XP with MySQL. […]

    Pingback by HyperGrid, or how to teleport between WORLDS using OpenSim « Zonja Capalini | January 5, 2009

  17. Thanks Vint! I’ll have to give this a try but I want to be sure I have the time to do it with no distractions LOL!

    Comment by Gita Rau | January 5, 2009

  18. Zonja,

    regarding Vints recent troubles, you might be interested in this newly reported bug;


    Comment by Stefan Andersson | January 5, 2009

  19. Thanks, Stefan! I modified the tutorial to include Vint’s explanations about the create user command, just in case somebody else experiences the same problem until this bug is fixed.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 6, 2009

  20. Thanks, Zonja! There is a bug in the .ini, when not using root but using another user id: in the third line containing DDDD and PPPP, the userid is root and should be UUUU. If that root isn’t changed to the same user id that was substituted for UUUU elsewhere, the script crashes and must be rerun after replacing root with the correct user id.

    Works well otherwise though! So great to have free uploading for testing sculpties and other textures.

    Comment by Alpha Runningbear | January 22, 2009

  21. Thanks! I fixed the bug. I’m in love with OpenSim, I’ve been using it quite extensively these last days. With hypergrid, the future is one of small grids hyperlinked between them. No more 12-hours MySQL database regen downtime because you have to share the grid with 80.000 more people! :-)

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | January 23, 2009

  22. […] for a while and looked around for some help on line and finally came across Zonja Capalini’s excellent post about setting up opensim using MSQL as the data base.  The instructions were very clear, I only […]

    Pingback by Setting up Opensim on my own machine « Plymouth Harbour’s Weblog | January 23, 2009

  23. Does this work with Vista? I tried it but get this:
    log4net:ERROR CmlHierarchyConfigurator: No appender named [NHibernateFileLog] not found.
    Performing compatibility checks… Environment is compatible.

    09:29:34 – [APPLICATION]:
    Unhandled Exception: Nini.ini.iniException:Expected closing quote – Line 1,0, position 53
    at Nini.Ini.IniDocument.LoadReader<IniReader reader.
    at…it lists several at Nini..stuff
    Can someone help me :(
    I am running vista 64 if this method doesnt work for that please let me know where I can find out how to run the standalone on my system

    Comment by Xen Zerbino | January 31, 2009

  24. omg….I cant believe it…I finally got it to work on vista.
    YAY and thanks for this great explanation on how to set it all up
    FYI it didnt work the first time because I had another opensim file and folders and had to delete them and reinstall the opensim download you recommended
    Thanks again :)

    Comment by Xen Zerbino | January 31, 2009

  25. oh I forgot to mention everything in your explanation will work for the vista
    EXCEPT you have to run the opensim32bitLaunch.exe file as administrator ilo the opensim.exe file

    Comment by Xen Zerbino | January 31, 2009

  26. Thanks for the info! :-) I’ve updated the tutorial to include instructions for Vista 64.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | February 1, 2009

  27. Hi, I’ve managed to get a standalone opensim running on my pc when I use the default sqlite database but when I attempted to use mysql by doing as you suggest or even just by amending the existing ini to use mysql, it crashes…

    Any suggestions would be welcome… :-)

    P.S. My OS is 32bit Vista.

    Comment by Chriz Palen | March 11, 2009

  28. I never worked with sqlite myself, but you may find this very detailed tutorial useful: http://chapter-and-metaverse.blogspot.com/2008/11/4-migrating-to-mysql.html

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | March 11, 2009

  29. Thanks, I’ll have look…but I’m a quite ‘green’ to be honest I haven’t worked with any databases at all, I just used the opensim ‘out of the box’.

    It was only when I tried to install the mysql that it didn’t work :-)

    Comment by Chriz Palen | March 11, 2009

  30. Update: I’ve got it running with mysql now :-)

    Comment by Chriz Palen | March 12, 2009

  31. […]   Social Links: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages. […]

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  32. I am unable to install MySQL with the necessary command line interface–it stalls if I try. It will only install w/o the command line interface. How can I set up the database for Opensim not using the command line interface?

    Comment by Rich Hamper | April 9, 2009

  33. I’m sorry, but I’m no MySQL expert myself. Maybe somebody can offer some help? :-)

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | April 14, 2009

  34. This post has been republished at maxpPing.org, check http://www.maxping.org/technology/platforms/open-simulator/install-opensim-locally-on-windows-xp.aspx

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | April 19, 2009

  35. Thank You! I got up and running in about 30 minutes. Appreciate this post.

    Comment by Jennifer | April 26, 2009

  36. […] Opensim was looking better and better, while Second Life was losing the little credibility they had left, if any, and other worlds didn’t look serious and/or stable enough for enterprise use. The only alternative seemed to be Opensim, so that I downloaded Opensim and MySql, created my first region, and blogged about my experience. […]

    Pingback by The Openspace fiasco: six months later « Zonja Capalini | April 30, 2009

  37. Hi Zonja!! thanx for the great instructions!!! theres just one thing, when i try to run opensim out of the command pompt it crashes and gives this error:

    15:56:31 – ========================= STARTING OPENSIM =========================
    15:56:31 – ====================================================================
    15:56:31 – [OPENSIM MAIN]: Running in sandbox mode
    15:56:31 – [DATASTORE]: Attempting to load OpenSim.Data.MySQL.dll
    15:56:31 – [REGION DB]: MySql – connecting: Data Source=localhost; Database=liqu
    idmesh;User ID=root;Password=***;
    15:56:32 – [APPLICATION]:

    Unhandled Exception: MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlException: Unable to connect to
    any of the specified MySQL hosts. —> System.Exception: Exception of type ‘Sys
    tem.Exception’ was thrown.
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.NativeDriver.Open()
    — End of inner exception stack trace —
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.NativeDriver.Open()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.Driver.Create(MySqlConnectionStringBuilder settings
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlPool.GetPooledConnection()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlPool.TryToGetDriver()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlPool.GetConnection()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlConnection.Open()
    at OpenSim.Data.MySQL.MySQLEstateStore.Initialise(String connectionString)
    at OpenSim.Region.Framework.StorageManager..ctor(String dllName, String conne
    ctionstring, String estateconnectionstring)
    at OpenSim.OpenSimBase.CreateStorageManager()
    at OpenSim.Region.ClientStack.RegionApplicationBase.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.OpenSimBase.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.OpenSim.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.Framework.Servers.BaseOpenSimServer.Startup()
    at OpenSim.Application.Main(String[] args)

    if anyone can help it would be great!

    Comment by LMD | May 2, 2009

  38. It looks like the problem is in the Mysql
    MySql – connecting: Data Source=localhost;
    User ID=root;

    The first thing to do is check you can actually connect to the Mysql database liquidmesh with the User/Password that you have in the OpenSim.ini file.

    You might try to delete the reference to the Database, and see if it starts with the default settings.

    Comment by Shockwave Plasma | May 4, 2009

  39. Hi i followed this however it did not work,

    It seems ports 8001 though to 8006 are not open, I want to start my own grid on windows XP

    If anyone can help me that would be great, I am on twitter please message me http://twitter.com/russellharrower


    Comment by russell | May 8, 2009

  40. Great guide, Zonja. I will first try on a Windows comp. because of your guide. ButI plan to use it on Linux or OSX so i will search for instructions for those platforms too.

    Thanks a lot!

    Comment by Ben Byron | May 30, 2009

  41. @Ben: Thanks, and welcome to the Opensim community! :-) Please send me private email if you need help! :-)

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | May 31, 2009

  42. Nice guide, Zonja!

    I want to add that running on Linux is definitely possible — my 14-year-old daughter set me up. I can lend her to anyone else! :-)

    Also, the first time I did this, I used the built-in SQLite instead of MySQL, which eliminates 90% of the steps. You’ll need MySQL for larger grids, or many concurrent users — but for a region or two, and a handful of guests, SQLite is just fine. Also, running Hippo instead of the Second Life browser eliminates having to change the file path, which I couldn’t figure out how to do in Vista!

    – Maria

    Comment by Maria Korolov | June 2, 2009

  43. […] I decided to give it a try myself. I downloaded Opensim and MySQL and installed my first Opensim. Here’s a blog article I wrote about […]

    Pingback by An interview by Alyne Dagger (with some final remarks) « Zonja Capalini | September 2, 2009

  44. Thank you so much. I had been struggling for a week to get Opnsim installed on my Vista laptop and had almost given up hope when I found your website. It worked!

    Comment by Ali Andrews | October 7, 2009

  45. You’re very welcome :-) It’s a very old article, tho — you might want to take a look at Diva’s distribution, described here: http://www.metaverseink.com/blog/?p=21 — it’s almost zero-config and it has an automatic update system.

    Comment by Zonja Capalini | October 7, 2009

  46. Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7600]
    Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


    C:\>cd program files (x86)

    C:\Program Files (x86)>cd opensim

    C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSim>opensim.32bitlaunch
    log4net:ERROR XmlHierarchyConfigurator: No appender named [NHibernateFileLog] co
    uld be found.
    log4net:ERROR XmlHierarchyConfigurator: Appender named [NHibernateFileLog] not f
    32-bit OpenSim executor

    This application is compiled for 32-bit CPU and will run under WOW32 or similar.

    All 64-bit incompatibilities should be gone.

    log4net:ERROR XmlHierarchyConfigurator: No appender named [NHibernateFileLog] co
    uld be found.
    log4net:ERROR XmlHierarchyConfigurator: Appender named [NHibernateFileLog] not f
    Performing compatibility checks… Environment is compatible.

    11:01:01 – [STARTUP]: Beginning startup processing
    11:01:01 – [STARTUP]: Version: OpenSimulator Server
    11:01:01 – ====================================================================
    11:01:01 – ========================= STARTING OPENSIM =========================
    11:01:01 – ====================================================================
    11:01:01 – [OPENSIM MAIN]: Running in sandbox mode
    11:01:01 – [DATASTORE]: Attempting to load opensim.Data.MySQL.dll
    11:01:01 – [REGION DB]: MySql – connecting: Data Source=localhost; Database=open
    sim;User ID=root;Password=***;
    11:01:01 – [REGION DB]: Connection wait timeout 28860 seconds
    OpenSim threw an exception:
    MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlException: Table ‘migrations’ already exists
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlStream.OpenPacket()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.NativeDriver.ReadResult(UInt64& affectedRows, Int64
    & lastInsertId)
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlDataReader.GetResultSet()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlDataReader.NextResult()
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlCommand.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior behavior
    at MySql.Data.MySqlClient.MySqlCommand.ExecuteNonQuery()
    at OpenSim.Data.Migration.Initialize()
    at OpenSim.Data.Migration..ctor(DbConnection conn, Assembly assem, String typ
    at OpenSim.Data.MySQL.MySQLEstateStore.Initialise(String connectionString)
    at OpenSim.Region.Environment.StorageManager..ctor(String dllName, String con
    nectionstring, String estateconnectionstring)
    at OpenSim.OpenSimBase.CreateStorageManager(String connectionstring, String e
    at OpenSim.OpenSimBase.CreateStorageManager()
    at OpenSim.Region.ClientStack.RegionApplicationBase.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.OpenSimBase.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.OpenSim.StartupSpecific()
    at OpenSim.Framework.Servers.BaseOpenSimServer.Startup()
    at OpenSim.Application.Main(String[] args)
    at OpenSim._32BitLaunch.Program.Main(String[] args) in C:\OpenSim\trunk6\Open
    Sim\Tools\OpenSim.32BitLaunch\Program.cs:line 47

    Application will now terminate!

    C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSim>

    I don’t understand what I am doing wrong. I follow the instructions to the letter and get this error.

    Comment by Frustrated | January 8, 2011

  47. […] initial set up is pretty simple.  I simply followed this guide.  Set by step, word for word, it’s very straight forward though you don’t actually need the […]

    Pingback by Creating Virtual Land : JoshMiller.net | December 8, 2011

  48. […] initial set up is pretty simple.  I simply followed this guide.  Set by step, word for word, it’s very straight forward though you don’t actually need the […]

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